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From:    Jaap van Ganswijk <>
To:      Abdul Malek Mahmood
Subject: Re: Special program need be embedded on chip

On 1997-07-31 Abdul Malek Mahmood wrote:

I would like to get some clarification on embedding special program on the chip which will fixed on the wrist watch. Following are the questions:

1. How can I restore a program to a chip?

This depends on the technology used to store the program.

There is:

The last two can be erased electronically by the program itself (which must be in ROM or another part of the EEPROM or Flash, but I don't have much experience with these.
Perhaps you' better ask on the PIC and/or Atmel mailing list, see: local

The program is generally downloaded via the serial port I guess.
An EPROM* programmer is generally also connected via a serial port or the printer port or it's inside a PC.

2. Normally what language (High or Lower level language) should I use to program?
I would recommand always to use C, but for small projects assembler can also be used.
3. How much do I have to spend per chip?
This depends on the functionality that the chip offers and also if it has expensive parts like EEPROM and FLASH and D/A and/or A/D convertor.

Microcontrollers go from $0.50 or so to $100 a piece.
Generally: The more pins they have, the more expensive they are.

4. Can I have the registered manufacturer - reputable one preferbly the Malaysian manufacturer.
I don't understand what you mean.

First you'll have to find a processor that fits your needs and then you should find your local distributor. Or in fact while deciding which processor to use you probably already talk to several distributors to ask for data sheets and ask how easy certain processors can be delivered and what they cost. You can also ask them which processors most of your colleagues are using...

5. How can you best assist me in this area.
I don't know. ;-)

Atmel's AVR processors are becoming very popular at the moment, so perhaps you should check them out first.

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